Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

  • Krzysztof Krejtz University of Social Sciences and Humanities,and National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw
  • Andrew T. Duchowski Clemson University, Clemson, USA
  • Izabela Krejtz University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
  • Agata Kopacz National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland
  • Piotr Chrząstowski-Wachtel Math, Informatics, and Mechanics, Institute of Informatics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Keywords: multimedia learning, transition, matrix entropy, scanpath comparison, working memory


Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze transition matrices, results showed that the interactive simulation elicited more careful visual investigation of the learning material as well as reading of the problem description through to its completion.
How to Cite
Krejtz, K., Duchowski, A. T., Krejtz, I., Kopacz, A., & Chrząstowski-Wachtel, P. (2016). Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 9(1).

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