Eye tracking in virtual reality: Vive pro eye spatial accuracy, precision, and calibration reliability
A growing number of virtual reality devices now include eye tracking technology, which can facilitate oculomotor and cognitive research in VR and enable use cases like foveated rendering. These applications require different tracking performance, often measured as spatial accuracy and precision. While manufacturers report data quality estimates for their devices, these typically represent ideal performance and may not reflect real-world data quality. Additionally, it is unclear how accuracy and precision change across sessions within the same participant or between devices, and how performance is influenced by vision correction. Here, we measured spatial accuracy and precision of the Vive Pro Eye built-in eye tracker across a range of 30 visual degrees horizontally and vertically. Participants completed ten measurement sessions over multiple days, allowing to evaluate calibration reliability. Accuracy and precision were highest for central gaze and decreased with greater eccentricity in both axes. Calibration was successful in all participants, including those wearing contacts or glasses, but glasses yielded significantly lower performance. We further found differences in accuracy (but not precision) between two Vive Pro Eye headsets, and estimated participants’ inter-pupillary distance. Our metrics suggest high calibration reliability and can serve as a baseline for expected eye tracking performance in VR experiments.